Free PDF download of RD Sharma Class 12 Solutions Chapter 27 Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios solved by Expert Maths Teachers on NCERTBooks.Guru. (adj/hyp)." We will now look at a slightly different situation where our line does not pass through the origin (0,0,0). Then you may find some example problems to understand how to find direction direction cosines and angles for the given vector. Any numbers that are proportional to the direction cosines are called direction ratios, usually represented as a, b, c. We have expressed earlier that r2 = (x2 + y2 + z2)……. This video is highly rated by Class 12 students and has been viewed 468 times. Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios_YT_Done.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. "text": "In a right triangle, any angle’s cosine is the length of the adjacent side i.e. "@type": "Answer", Direction cosines: Now if we take the cosine of the Direction Angles of a line then we get the Direction cosines of that line. Direction Cosines and Ratios : Here we are going to see the definition of the terms "Direction cosines" and "Direction angles". PROOF: Through P draw PL perpendicular to x-axis so that OL = x. Download PDF's. } Directional angles: The angles made by a line with the positive directions of the X, Y and Z axes are called directional angles. r = {(x – 0)2 + (y – 0)2 + (z – 0)2}1/2 Note : If (a, b, c) are the direction ratios of a line then for any non-zero real number λ, (, , )λλλab care also the direction ratios of the same line. The cosine is equivalent to the adjacent side divided by the hypotenuse i.e. Normally, it is tradition to denote these direction cosines using the letters l, m, n respectively. Join courses with the best schedule and enjoy fun and interactive classes. ... What are the direction cosines of a line whose direction ratios are 3,4,12? If l, m, n are direction cosines and a, b, c are direction ratios of a line, then a = λl, b=λm and c = λn, for any nonzero λ ∈ R. Note Some authors also call direction ratios as direction numbers. View 11_Three Dimensional Geometry.pdf from MATHS 112 at DPS Modern Indian School. The direction ratios of the line joining (2, 1, 2) and (4, 2, 0) are 4 – 2, 2 – 1, 0 – 2 i.e., 2, 1, –2 i.e.,Dividing each by the direction-cosines of the line are Chapter Chosen. Sin is constantly positive in this range, whereas, the cosine is positive till 90 degrees where it turns out to be ‘0’ and is negative later." The direction cosines of the line are given by cos α, cos β, cos γ. DIRECTION RATIOS AND DIRECTION COSINES If a straight line makes angles Î± , Î² and Î³ with x-axis , y-axis and z- axis respectively, then cosÎ± ,cosÎ² ,cosÎ³ are called direction cosines of the straight line. Three Dimensional Geometry Book Chosen. Let P be a point in the space with coordinates (x, y, z) and of distance r from the origin. RD Sharma Maths Solutions is one of the most demanding solutions for the students of class 12. DIRECTION COSINES AND DIRECTION RATIOS. Let P be a point in the space with coordinates (x, y, z) and of distance r from the origin. By interpreting the above statement, it can be said that the direction cosines are the coefficients of the unit vectors \(\hat{i} , \hat{j} , \hat{k} \) when we express the unit vector \( \hat{r} \) in terms of its rectangular components. Finding direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector - Examples. Direction ratios: Any three numbers that are proportional to the direction cosines of a line are called the direction ratios of the line. IIT-JEE. Since l = cos α, m = cos β and n = cos γ and we know that -1< cos x< 1 ∀ x ∈ R, so l, m and n are real numbers with values varying between -1 to 1. 12 is defined by the angles , and which are the angles the line makes with the positive . { Then ∠ PRO = ∠ PSO = ∠ PTO = 90º. Course. }, Class 12 Class 11 Class 10 Class 9 Class 8 Class 7 Class 6. You can download Three Dimensional Geometry Cheat Sheet by clicking on the download button below. cos , cos , cos. 21 2 1 21. x xyy lm n dd zz d (3) Direction cosines … report form. } H. When we write a formula, we write it simply as “Cos”. "acceptedAnswer": { So, dc’s ∈ [-1,1]. "text": "The Law of (Sin)s establish a relationship among the angles and the side lengths of triangle ABC: ‘a/sin(A)’ = ‘b/sin(B)’ = ‘c/sin(C)’. "acceptedAnswer": { Free PDF download of RD Sharma Class 12 Solutions Chapter 27 - Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios Exercise 27.1 solved by Expert Mathematics Teachers on Vedantu.com. r = (x2 + y2 + z2)1/2, Now, as we stated earlier, we can replace cos α, cos β, cos γ with l, m, n respectively. Currently only available for. You may wonder how the direction cosines are to be found when the line does not pass through the origin. Consequently, the direction cosines i.e. b = mr. c = nr. Alleen Test Solutions. "@type": "FAQPage", Now, the angles that this line makes with the three axes will be the same as that made by our original line and hence the direction cosines of the angles made by this fictitious line with the axes will be the same for our original line as well. Let a, b, c be direction ratios of a line and let l, m and n be the direction cosines … 11.1.5 If l, m, n are the direction cosines and a, b, c are the direction ratios of a line, then 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2; ; a b c l m n a b c a b c a b c ± ± ± = = = + + + + + + Consider a vector \[\vec r = x\hat i + y\hat j + z\hat k\] as shown in the figure below: The magnitude or \(\vec r\) is simply the length of the diagonal of the cuboid whose sides are x, y and z.Thus Exam. (cos α)2 = 1/3 Here, the line under question is labelled as OP. "acceptedAnswer": { "@type": "Question", Question 4: What is cosine equivalent to? Direction cosines are generally denoted by l , m , n. If O be origin and P is a point whose co-ordinates are ( x , y , z ), then x = lr , y = mr , z = nr , where l , m , n are direction cosines of OP. (adj/hyp). Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line, Fundamentals of Business Mathematics & Statistics, Fundamentals of Economics and Management – CMA, Equation of a Plane Perpendicular to a Given Vector and Passing Through a Given Point, Equation of Plane Passing Through Three Non Collinear Points, Intercept Form of the Equation of a Plane, Plane Passing Through the Intersection of Two Given Planes. "text": "We use the laws of the cosines to find out an angle in the following ways:\n1.\tFirst of all, use the taw of the Cosines for calculating one of the angles.\n2.\tThen, use the law of the Cosines for a second time to find out another angle.\n3.\tFinally, use angles of a triangle add to 180 degrees to find out the last angle." where l,m,n represent the direction cosines of the given vector on the axes X,Y,Z respectively. Class 12 Class 11 Class 10 Class 9 Class 8 Class 7 Class 6. Finally, use angles of a triangle add to 180 degrees to find out the last angle. Now, using Pythagoras’ theorem, we know that we can express the coordinates of the point P (x, y, z) as –, x = r. cos α What are direction cosines of a line that passes through the origin that makes angles with the coordinate axes? Students can also make the best out of its features such as Job Alerts and Latest Updates. Let R, S and T be the foots of the perpendiculars drawn from P to the x, y and z axes respectively. Relation between direction cosines and direction ratios of a line - definition. ", Course. Now that we have understood what direction cosines are, we can move to direction ratios. Dividing equation (1) by r2 on both sides. Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios . We consider another fictitious line parallel to our line such that the second line passes through the origin. Watch lectures, practise questions and take tests on the go. Note that it is easy to conclude that: So we can write, a = kl, b = km, c = kn where k is a constant. Often recalled as ‘CAH’ – which means: Cosine is Adjacent over Hypotenuse." All the exercise of Chapter 27 Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios RD Sharma Class 12 questions with Solutions to help you to revise complete Syllabus and Score More marks in JEE Mains, JEE Advanced, and Engineering … Question 5: How do we use the law of cosines to find an angle? Note that we will follow the three-dimensional Cartesian system to mark the coordinates of the point P (x, y, z). Videos. The direction of the line PP. "@type": "Answer", Let us assume that the magnitude of the vector is ‘r’ and the vector makes angles α, β, γ with the coordinate axes. l, m. and . Let OL be inclined at angles \(\alpha ,\,\beta ,\,\gamma \) to the coordinate axes. Download PDF's. A divided with the length of hypotenuse i.e. Direction ratios of the line are 2, –1,–2.Dividing each by the direction cosines of line are Direction ratios of the line are 2, –1,–2.Dividing each by the direction cosines of line are ... Download the PDF Question Papers Free for off line practice and view the Solutions online. it. Answer: Let us assume that the given line makes angles α, β, γ with the coordinate axes. The direction cosines of a (directed) line are the cosines of the angles which the line makes with the positive directions of the coordinate axes. }, In view of the coronavirus pandemic, we are making, Distance Formula and Its Use in 3D Geometry. concepts cleared in less than 3 steps. NCERT Easy Reading. Dec 05, 2020 - L2 : Direction Cosine, Ratios - Three Dimensional Geometry , Maths, Class 12 Class 12 Video | EduRev is made by best teachers of Class 12. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector : Consider a vector as shown below on the x-y-z plane. direction cosines. ", "acceptedAnswer": { Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios. RD Sharma Maths Solutions Class 12 Chapter 27 Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios PDF / RD Sharma Maths Solutions Class 12 Chapter 27 Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios is necessary for the students who are preparing for their board examination. 2:52 35.9k LIKES. Blog. Direction Cosines & Direction Ratios Of A Line Direction Cosines When a directed line OP passing through the origin makes \(\alpha \) , \(\beta\) and \( \gamma\) angles with the \(x\) , \(y \) and \(z \) axis respectively with O as the reference, these angles are referred as the direction angles of the line and the cosine of these angles give us the direction cosines. "mainEntity": [ The well-structured Intermediate portal of sakshieducation.com provides study materials for Intermediate, EAMCET.Engineering and Medicine, JEE (Main), JEE (Advanced) and BITSAT. "@type": "Question", So the Direction Cosines of the above line are given by Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points •For a line joining two points P(x 1, y 1, z 1) and Q(x 2, y 2, x 2) the direction ratios are This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the permission to share Free PDF download of RD Sharma Class 12 Solutions Chapter 27 - Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios solved by Expert Mathematics Teachers on CoolGyan.Org. Report DMCA. of the line . x, y. and . where λ ≠ 0 and λ ∈ R. Relation between direction cosines and direction ratios: PN = LM = OM – OL = cos∠QPN = =,, So the direction ratios of the line joining P and Q are be two given points, Direction cosine and Direction ratios along with solved examples at CoolGyan Summary. 12, denoted by . "@type": "Answer", Note that these cosines can be found only once we have found the angles that the line makes with each of the axes. Direction Ratios: The co-ordinates of the point P may also be expressed as the product of the magnitude of the given vector and the cosines of direction on the three axes, i.e. All Chapter 27 - Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios Ex 27.1 Questions with Solutions for RD Sharma Class 12 Maths to help you to revise complete Syllabus and Score More marks. the cosines of these angles will also be different once the direction of the line is reversed. THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 463 11.2 Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of a Line The angles made by this line with the +ve direactions of the coordinate axes: θx, θy, and θz are used to find the direction cosines of the line: cos θx, cos θy, and cos θz. ", Then, the line will make an angle each with the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis respectively. If you are author or own the copyright of this book, please report to us by using this DMCA z = r. cos γ (1). "name": "How do we use the law of cosines to find an angle? If l , m , n are the direction cosines of a line and l=, m= are its direction ratios, then. }, About Us. cos α= (1/3)1/2. Let us assume a line OP passes through the origin in the three-dimensional space. }, References. Revise With the concepts to understand better. The . Often recalled as ‘CAH’ – which means: Cosine is Adjacent over Hypotenuse. If l,m,n are the direction cosines of a line, then a,b,c are its direction ratios such that: l = aλ m = b λ. n = cλ. n. are . ] This gives us a unique relation: the sum of squares of the direction cosines of a line is equal to unity. Learn about Direction Cosine in vectors representation. arrow_back Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios. Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios_YT_Done.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Question 2: What is the formula for cosine? Sin is constantly positive in this range, whereas, the cosine is positive till 90 degrees where it turns out to be ‘0’ and is negative later. How to Find the Direction Cosines of a Vector With Given Ratios : Here we are going to see the how to find the direction cosines of a vector with given ratios. In three-dimensional geometry, we have three axes: namely, the x, y, and z-axis. These solu z-axes respectively. class 12 class 11 class 10 class 9 class 8 class 7 class 6. All Chapter 27 Exercise Questions with Solutions to help you to revise complete Syllabus and Score More marks. Answer: We use the laws of the cosines to find out an angle in the following ways: { A solved problem, in the end, will help you understand the concepts better. A divided with the length of hypotenuse i.e. In three-dimensional geometry, we have three axes: namely, the x, y, and z-axis. Our experts are available 24x7. "name": "What is the formula for cosine? "text": "The sine of an angle is equivalent to the opposite side divided with the hypotenuse (opp/hyp in the diagram). a = lr. The cosine is equivalent to the adjacent side divided by the hypotenuse i.e. ", Hence we can conclude that the line making equal angles with the coordinate axes has the direction cosines (1/3)1/2. This lesson helps you understand the concepts of direction cosines and direction ratios which are nothing but numbers proportional to the direction cosines. Three Dimensional Geometry 11 11.1 Introduction 11.6 Plane 11.2 Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios of About Us. NCERT Easy Reading. The core concepts of three-dimensional geometry are direction cosines and direction ratios. "name": "What are the laws of (sin)s and (cosine)s? It passes through the origin and we are to find out the direction cosines of the line. } PP. Answer: In a right triangle, any angle’s cosine is the length of the adjacent side i.e. { We know that l = cos α, m = cos β, n = cos γ, Therefore, we use the relation l2 + m2 + n2 = 1 "@type": "Question", Free PDF download of RD Sharma Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter 27 - Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios solved by Expert Mathematics Teachers on Vedantu.com. Now learn Live with India's best teachers. Answer: The Law of (Sin)s establish a relationship among the angles and the side lengths of triangle ABC: ‘a/sin(A)’ = ‘b/sin(B)’ = ‘c/sin(C)’. MAGNITUDE, DIRECTION COSINES AND DIRECTION RATIOS. H. When we write a formula, we write it simply as “Cos”. Let us assume a line OP passes through the origin in the three-dimensional space. { Then, use the law of the Cosines for a second time to find out another angle. Then, the line will make an angle each with the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis respectively.The cosines of each of these angles that the line makes with the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis respectively are called direction cosines of the line in three-dimensional geometry. Career. "@type": "Question", If l, m, n are the direction cosines of a line, then a, b, c are its direction ratios such that: a l = b m = c n = λ = ± a 2 + b 2 + c 2 1 And also l 2 + m 2 + n 2 = 1 Rd Sharma XII Vol 2 (2016) Solutions for Class 12 Science Math Chapter 8 Direction Cosines And Direction Ratios are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. The cosines of each of these angles that the line makes with the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis respectively are called direction cosines of the line in three-dimensional geometry. NCERT. { All Chapter 27 - Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios Questions with Solutions for RD Sharma Class 12 Maths to help you to revise complete Syllabus and Score More marks. Connect with a tutor instantly and get your Have a doubt at 3 am? } Question 3: What are the laws of (sin)s and (cosine)s? Register for online coaching for IIT JEE (Mains & Advanced), NEET, Engineering and Medical entrance exams. Thus, we have –, In the orthogonal system, we can represent r in its unit vector components form as –, \( r = x \hat{i} + y \hat{j} + z \hat{k} \), Using the relations we established above, we can substitute the values of x, y, z to get the following –, \( \hat{r} = lr\hat{i} + mr\hat{j} + nr\hat{k} \), So, \( \hat{r} \) = r/ | r | = l\(\hat{i} + m\hat{j} + n\hat{k} \). Consider a line OL as shown, passing through the origin O. First of all, use the taw of the Cosines for calculating one of the angles. So, (cos α)2 + (cos β)2 + (cos γ)2 = 1 n= DIRECTION RATIOS OF THE LINE JOINING TWO POINTS Let P(: and Q(Draw QM and PL perpendiculars to OX and PN perpendicular to QM. Blog. The answer is simple. Since the line makes equal angles with the coordinate axes, cos α = cos β = cos γ, Thus, 3(cos α)2 = 1 Answer: The sine of an angle is equivalent to the opposite side divided with the hypotenuse (opp/hyp in the diagram). "@context": "https://schema.org", "name": "What is cosine equivalent to? Also, it is interesting to note that if we reverse the direction of this line, the angles will obviously change. Class 10 Class 12. 11.1.4 Direction ratios of a line are the numbers which are proportional to the direction cosines of the line. Question 1: Find the direction cosines of the line that makes equal angles with each of the coordinate axes. Career. y = r. cos β "@type": "Answer", Direction cosines of a line in terms of its direction ratios If (a, b, c) are direction ratios of a line then the direction cosines of the line are 22 2 … } Alleen Test Solutions. Is highly rated by Class 12 students and has been viewed 468 times x. Students can also make the best schedule and enjoy fun and interactive classes angles will be! To note that these cosines can be found When the line makes with each the. In 3D geometry has the direction cosines are, we have three axes: namely, the line not... The end, will help you understand the concepts better the given vector on the x-y-z plane Chapter 27 cosines... Line, the line making equal angles with each of the line is equal to unity exams!, Any angle ’ s ∈ [ -1,1 ] Any angle ’ s ∈ [ -1,1.... 180 degrees to find out the direction cosines of the line will make an angle is equivalent the. Also be different once the direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector shown... It is tradition to denote these direction cosines and direction ratios of the direction cosines to! Z ) and z-axis also, it is tradition to denote these direction cosines and angles the... Ratios, then out another angle confirmed that they have the permission to share it, Any angle ’ ∈! Advanced ), NEET direction cosines and direction ratios pdf Engineering and Medical entrance exams draw PL perpendicular x-axis... The most demanding Solutions for the given line makes with each of the line does not pass through origin!, dc ’ s cosine is adjacent over hypotenuse. Job Alerts and Latest Updates n represent the direction are. Type '': `` question '', `` name direction cosines and direction ratios pdf: `` question '', name... Degrees to find direction direction cosines of a line OL as shown below on axes... Will follow the three-dimensional Cartesian system to mark the coordinates of the direction ratios of a vector -.. By r2 on both sides cosine equivalent to the direction cosines of angles. Line will make an angle both sides equation ( 1 ) by r2 both... To 180 degrees to find out the last angle this lesson helps you the... Register for online coaching for IIT JEE ( Mains & Advanced ),,! Take tests on the download button below students of Class 12 Class 11 Class 10 9! Direction cosines ( 1/3 ) 1/2 below on the x-y-z plane ( sin ) s and which are but. Understand how to find out the last angle formula, we have three:. Geometry, we are to be found only once we have understood What direction cosines of a vector: a! ] }, { `` @ type '': `` What is the length of the cosines for calculating of!, β, γ with the direction cosines and direction ratios pdf, y-axis, and which the! Is one of the axes may find some example problems to understand how to find an angle each the! Let OL be inclined at angles \ ( \alpha, \, \gamma \ ) the... We can move to direction ratios: Any three numbers that are proportional to the direction cosines direction... System to mark the coordinates of the line does not pass through the origin in the space. Simply as “ cos ” both sides consider another fictitious line parallel our... We consider another fictitious line parallel to our line does not pass through the origin in the space with (... Direction cosines of the line makes angles α, cos γ ) 1/2 let r s. Γ with the hypotenuse ( opp/hyp in the space with coordinates ( x, y, z.! Here, the line makes with each of the line that passes through the.... That we will follow the three-dimensional space of RD Sharma Class 12 students and has viewed! And Latest Updates axes respectively parallel to our line does not pass through the origin in space! Line such that the line makes angles with the positive and get your concepts cleared in than... Out another angle both sides, m= are its direction ratios solved by Expert Maths Teachers on.. The best schedule and enjoy fun and interactive classes OP passes through the origin.! Has been viewed 468 times the hypotenuse i.e own the copyright of this book, please report to by... Be inclined at angles \ ( \alpha, \, \beta, \, \. With each of the most demanding Solutions for the students of Class 12 as shown, passing through origin... An angle each with the coordinate axes point in the end, will help you understand the of. By Class 12 students and has been viewed 468 times can move to direction ratios are 3,4,12 Cheat by! “ cos ”: how do we use the law of cosines to find angle... The angles will obviously change formula, we write a formula, we can move to direction ratios a! Line are given by cos α, cos γ the length of the coordinate axes with to! Three axes: namely, the x, y and z axes respectively the... Let r, s and T be the foots of the most demanding Solutions for the given on... Be different once the direction ratios, then { `` @ type '' ``... The end, will help you to revise complete Syllabus and Score More.... Parallel to our line such that the second line passes through the.. Adjacent side i.e as OP as “ cos ” } ] }, in the three-dimensional space s T. `` question '', `` name '': `` What is the formula cosine. Download of RD Sharma Class 12 students and has been viewed 468 times the best schedule and fun! And Score More marks ’ s ∈ [ -1,1 ] Engineering and Medical entrance exams unity! Syllabus and Score More marks copyright of this line, the angles has been viewed times. ] }, in the diagram ) be inclined at angles \ (,! Shown below on the axes x, y, z ) and of distance r from the origin of of... Sine of an angle ) and of distance r from the origin and has been viewed 468 times name. Students can also make the best out of its features such as Job Alerts and Latest Updates the. That the second line passes through the origin in the end, will help you to revise Syllabus! ), NEET, Engineering and Medical entrance exams origin in the space coordinates... Fictitious line parallel to our line does not pass through the origin if. Interesting to note that if we reverse the direction cosines using the letters l, m n! '': `` question '', `` name '': `` question '', `` ''... The given line makes with each of the coronavirus pandemic, we have found the angles x-axis, y-axis and... Cosines and direction ratios by cos α, β, γ with the hypotenuse i.e by 12! Taw of the angles ratios, then interesting to note that these cosines can be found only once we three...: through P draw PL perpendicular to x-axis so that OL =.., then the letters l, m, n respectively button below of three-dimensional geometry, write... Also be different once the direction cosines of a line that makes equal angles with each of the angles and! Of this line, the angles, and z-axis respectively to be found only we! Uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the permission to share it direction cosines and direction ratios pdf.! Report form line and l=, m= are its direction ratios which are nothing but numbers to. Hypotenuse. to direction ratios of a line and l=, m= its. Revise complete Syllabus and Score More marks have the permission to share it \ ( \alpha,,. Pl perpendicular to x-axis so that OL = x the go divided by the hypotenuse opp/hyp... Is one of the cosines for calculating one of the cosines for a second time to out... 10 Class 9 Class 8 Class 7 Class 6 one of the given line makes angles α,,. Cleared in less than 3 steps note that we have found the angles will also be different the... 180 degrees to find out the last angle namely, the angles that the line... Watch lectures, practise Questions and take tests on the x-y-z plane y z. To help you understand the concepts of three-dimensional geometry, we can that... Will follow the three-dimensional space document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the permission to it! In view of the adjacent side divided by the hypotenuse ( opp/hyp in the three-dimensional.! Divided with the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis such that the given vector, and. What is cosine equivalent to the coordinate axes n are the direction cosines these... Download of RD Sharma Class 12 Class 11 Class 10 Class 9 Class 8 Class Class. Law of the cosines for calculating one of the line is reversed each of the under. ∠ PTO = 90º of three-dimensional geometry, we are to be found When the line under question labelled... Author or own the copyright of this book, please report to us by this! With each of the angles that the line will make an angle each with the coordinate axes,. A triangle add to 180 degrees to find out the direction cosines of a add... Also make the best out of its features such as Job Alerts and Latest Updates is equal to.. Are its direction ratios, then of an angle reverse the direction of this line, the line makes the... Also make the best schedule and enjoy fun and interactive classes 9 8.

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